Area 1 Envirothon

Envirothon 2006

Lucas County

Soils Eco-station

1.  What is the depth of the topsoil (A Horizon) at the site?

a.  0 inches

b.  4 inches

c.  9 inches

d.  12 inches


2.  What is the texture of the soil from 18 to 26 inches below the soil surface?

a.  Heavy clay

b.  Fine sand

c.  Coarse sandy loam

d.  Medium silty clay loam


3.  What is the structure of the soil from 18 to 26 inches below the soil surface?

a.  Platy

b.  Angular Blocky

c.  Prismatic

d.  Single Grained


4.  Permeability is the quality of the soil that enables water to move downward through the soil profile. Both texture and structure affect the permeability of the soil.  What term best describes the permeability of the soil at this site?

            a.  Very slow, less than 0.06 inch/hour

            b.  Slow, 0.06 to 0.20 inches/hour

            c.  Moderate,  0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour

            d.  Rapid, 6.0 to 20 inches /hour


5.  Considering the texture and structure of the soil at this site, which term best describes the runoff rate of water expected from this soil type?

a.       Slow

b.      Rapid

c.       Very Rapid

d.      Extremely Rapid


6.  What drainage class would you expect for this light brown soil?

            a.  Excessively well drained

            b.  Moderately well drained

            c.  Poorly drained

            d.  Very poorly drained 


7.  Below the bottom of the pit, at approximately 55 inches, there is a significant change in the texture of soil.  What is the dominant texture of this material, which is piled nest to the pit?

a.  Clay

b.  Silt loam

c.  Coarse sandy loam

d.  Loam


8.  Which of the following best describes how the soil material from the 55 inch depth was deposited?

            a.  The wind blew it there.

            b.  A glacier deposited it, then water worked it.

            c.   A volcano erupted and it flowed there.

            d.  A landslide occurred and it slid there.


9.  Toledo, which is in Lucas County, is known as the Glass City.  What major component used in the glass making process is found in this soil pit?

            a.  Sand

            b.  Silt 

            c.  Clay

            d.  Rock


10.  In the Soil Legend of the Soil Survey of Lucas County, Ohio (found immediately in front of the map section), what does the symbol DgB stand for?

            a.  Dog Bones

            b.  Digby sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes

            c.  Digby sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes

            d.  Dixboro fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes.


11.  What does the second capital letter in a soil symbol represent?

a.  The second soil in the list.

b.  The degree of erosion.

c.  The grade the soil receives.

d.  The slope class.


12.  What does the “3” in the soil map unit symbol SuE3, shown in the soil legend of the               Soil Survey indicate?

a.  The third soil in the list.

b.  A soil that is severely eroded.

c.  The third Su soil.

d.  The slope class. 


13.  The soil at this pit is mapped as “OtB” on soil map sheet #42 of the Soil Survey; the pit is located in the northeast quarter of section 11 of Waterville Township.  What is the name of this soil? 

a.       Oakville fine sand

b.      Oakville-Urban land complex

c.       Olentangy silt loam

d.      Ottokee fine sand


14.  Northwest of the soil pit  is an area mapped “Pq” on map sheet #42; there is also an area adjacent to it mapped “W”.  Using the map legend or the soil description for “Pq” found on page 32 of the Soil Survey, what activity was conducted at the site mapped “Pq”?

a.       The area was quarried for rock

b.      The area was quarried for sand

c.       The area was used for urban land

d.      The area was used as a polo field


15.  Looking south or southeast from the soil pit, you  look toward Blue Creek.  The soil mapped Blue Creek is mapped  “So”.  Would you expect an area mapped “So” to flood occasionally?   Refer to the soil legend at the beginning of the map section in the Soil  Survey to determine the flooding frequency of “So” soil.

      a.  Never

b.      Occasionally

c.       Frequently

d.      Cannot be determined


16.  Although test holes are recommended, the Soil Survey can be a good tool in helping you make land use decisions.  Table 11 in the Soil Survey lists some site features that affect water management.  If you wanted to build a pond, which soil would potentially provide the best site?

a.       Bixler

b.      Hoytville

c.       Ottokee

d.      Tedrow


17.  Using Table 10 in the Soil Survey of Lucas County, Ohio, which soil would provide the best source of sand?

a.       Latty

b.      Metamora

c.       Oakville

d.      Shoal


18.  Shrink-swell potential can affect roads, building foundations and other structures, and plant roots.  Using Table 15 in the soil survey, which soil has a low shrink-swell potential?

a.       Hoytville

b.      Latty

c.       Spinks

d.      Toledo


19.  If the soil pit site mapped “OtB” in the Soil Survey was wooded, which tree would you expect to commonly find growing?  Refer  to Table 7, “Woodland Management and Productivity”.

a.       Northern Red Oak

b.      Sugar Maple

c.       Sweet Gum

d.      Yellow-poplar   


20.  Using Table 4 on page 90 of the Soil Survey of Lucas County, Ohio, which soil is mapped on the most acres in Lucas County?

a.       Dunbridge sandy loam

b.      Hoytville clay loam

c.       Latty silty clay

d.      Rimer loamy fine sand 


22.  According to the Geology section, located on page 1 of the Soil Survey, the glacial-lake landscape in Lucas County is characterized by sandy beach ridges and dunes which extend northeast-southwest from Sylvania to Neapolis.  What is the name given to this sandy beach ridge area?       

a.       Sylvania Beaches

b.      Neapolis Dunes

c.       Lucas Beach

d.      Oak Openings 


23. Some of the soils in Lucas County formed in lacustrine material.  What does “lacustrine” mean?  Refer to the glossary which begins on page 80 in the Soil Survey.

            a.  Material deposited in lake water

            b.  Lack of clay material

            c.  Beach ridge of sandy material

            d.  Rock


24. A Histosol is a general soil category, known as the Soil Order, for a soil which developed in organic matter.  Use the “Classification of the Soils” in Lucas County, found on page 139 of the Soil Survey to identify which soil is the only soil in Lucas County that is classified as a Histosol.  HINT: the last four letters of the taxonomic name indicate the soil order; “ists” indicates that the soil is a Histosol.

            a.  Colwood

            b.  Muskego

            c.  Nappanee

            d.  Oakville


25. In August of 1794 the “Battle of Fallen Timbers” occurred in what is now Lucas County; this was a decisive battle that affirmed that the “Old Northwest Territory” was under the control of the United States.  Refer to soil map sheet #39; the northwest area of where I-475 & US 24 (Anthony Wayne Trail) cross, south of the RR tracks, is where the battle occurred.   What is the symbol for the major soil type mapped in this area?

            a.  Co

            b.  Mu

            c.  StB

            d.  To


26.  According to the “Settlement” section on page 1 of the Soil Survey, what did early settlers do to “The Black Swamps” to make the area good for producing crops?

            a.  Drain the area using ditches and tile (subsurface drainage)

            b.  Cover the area in plastic

            c.  Irrigate the area

            d.  Remove a large number of boulders from throughout the swamps  


27.  Table 5 in the Soil Survey lists potential yields per acre for various crops for the soils mapped in the county.  Although the actual  numbers may not be accurate because of improved varieties, etc., the table does give a good general indication of productivity.  If you were comparing four farms available for purchase, and soil type is the only significant difference between the four, which farm would provide the best opportunity for producing the most corn per acre?

            a.  The farm mapped predominately BxA.

            b.  The farm mapped predominately Co.

            c.  The farm mapped predominately  FuA.

            d.  The farm mapped predominately Lf. 


28.  A growing degree day is a unit of heat available for plant growth.  Which month has the greatest average number of growing degree days in Lucas County?  See Table 1, “Temperature and Precipitation” in the Soil Survey.

a.       June

b.      July

c.       August

d.      September


29.  What is the approximate average yearly precipitation in Lucas County?  See Table 1 on page 88 of the Soil Survey.

a.       Approximately 10 inches per year

b.      Approximately 30 inches per year

c.       Approximately 60 inches per year

d.      Approximately 90 inches per year